a. Apply 0 V to the inverting input. Sweep the non-inverting input (Vin) from -5 V to 5 V with 1 V steps. Take more steps around 0 V (both positive and negative). Create a table for Vin and Vout. Plot the data (Vout vs Vin). Discuss your results. What would be the ideal plot?
Graph 1: Shows Vin vs Vout on the non-inverting
Our values received make sense because the amplifier has a higher gain but a restriction on voltage. So the values are going to increase close to the 5V right away because the gain amplifies it.
Graph 2: Shows Vout vs Vin on the inverting
Our values received make sense because the amplifier has a higher gain but a restriction on voltage. So the values are going to increase close to the 5V right away because the gain amplifies it. But since this one is inverting, the negative input gives a positive output and vice versa.
2. Create a non-inverting amplifier. (R2 = 2 kΩ, R1 = 1 kΩ). Sweep Vin from -5 V to 5 V with 1 V steps. Create a table for Vin and Vout. Plot the measured and calculated data together.
Graph 3: Shows Vin vs Vout with the resistors
3. Create an inverting amplifier. (Rf = 2 kΩ, Rin = 1 kΩ). Sweep Vin from -5 V to 5 V with 1 V steps. Create a table for Vin and Vout. Plot the measured and calculated data together.
Graph 4: Shows Vin vs Vout with the resistors
4. Explain how an OPAMP works. How come is the gain of the OPAMP in the open loop configuration too high but inverting/non-inverting amplifier configurations provide such a small gain?
OPAMP works by not allowing any resistance to divide the gain. It has two inputs of opposite polarity and has a single output with a very high gain.
1. Connect your DC power supply to pin 2 and ground pin 5. Set your power supply to 0V. Switch your multimeter to measure the resistance mode; use your multimeter to measure the resistance between pin 4 and pin 1. Do the same measurement between pin 3 and pin 1. Explain your findings (EXPLAIN).
When measuring the resistance between the pins, 4 and 1 received a value of 6.5 ohms, and pins 3 and 1 overloaded the circuit. Since Vout on pin 4 is based off of the Vin being less then the threshold, since there is no voltage being inputted, Vin will receive a value on pin 4.
2. Now sweep your DC power supply from 0V to 8V and back to 0V. What do you observe at the multimeter (resistance measurements similar to #1)? Did you hear a clicking sound? How many times? What is the “threshold voltage values” that cause the “switching?” (EXPLAIN with a VIDEO).
Video 1: Shows when the relay threshold takes placeWhen increasing the voltage, you hear a single clicking noise from the relay around 5 Volts. When turning the voltage back you hear another clicking noise around 2.5 Volts.
3. How does the relay work? Apply a separate DC voltage of 5 V to pin 1. Check the voltage value of pin 3 and pin 4 (each with respect to ground) while switching the relay (EXPLAIN with a VIDEO).
Video 2: Shows when the relay switches and how it worksA relay works kind of like a transistor, you have to reach a certain voltage before anything changes. Our threshold changes at 5V and 2.5V. So pin 3 and 4 will swap values once the relay switches.
Video 3: Shows how the relay works with a diodeThe diode activated once the relay is switched when you hit 5V, and is switched off once you drop back below the lower threshold of 2.5V.
1. Connect the power supplies to the op-amp (+10V and 0V). Show the operation of LM 124 operational amplifier in DC mode with a non-inverting amplifier configuration. Choose any opamp in the IC. Method: Use several R1 and R2 configurations and change your input voltage (voltages between 0 and 10V) and record your output voltage. (EXPLAIN with a TABLE)
|Input||Output V (R1=2K R2=1K||Output V (R1=1K R2=1K||Output V (R1=120 R2=1K|